By Y. Leif. Oklahoma Christian University.
Age Although all ages can be skin tested order 100mg kamagra polo overnight delivery erectile dysfunction jack3d, skin reactivity has been demonstrated to be reduced in infants and the elderly ( 11 purchase kamagra polo with a mastercard erectile dysfunction treatment mayo clinic,12) purchase cheap kamagra polo online erectile dysfunction medications comparison. Gender There is no significant difference in skin test reactivity between males and females ( 12). Medications Antihistamines reduce skin reactivity to histamine and allergens, and thus should be withheld for a period of time corresponding to three half-lives of the drug. Histamine (H2) antagonists also may blunt dermal reactivity, although this is usually not clinically significant ( 13,14). Other medications, such as tricyclic antidepressants and chlorpromazine, can block skin test reactivity for extended periods of time and may need to be avoided for up to 2 weeks before testing ( 15). Long-term systemic corticosteroid therapy may affect mast cell response; however, it does not appear to affect skin testing with airborne allergens ( 17). Topical corticosteroid preparations may inhibit skin reactivity and should not be applied at the site of testing for at least 1 week before testing (18). Immunotherapy Individuals who have previously received allergen immunotherapy can have diminished skin reactivity to aeroallergens when repeat testing is performed ( 19,20). The domination is less than 10-fold on end-point titration and therefore rarely clinically relevant. Circadian Rhythm and Seasonal Variation There is conflicting data whether cutaneous reactivity changes during the day ( 21,22). Testing during certain times of the year also may influence skin reactivity (23,24). Extracts Skin testing should be performed with clinically relevant and potent allergens. Currently a number of standardized allergenic extracts are available and should be used when possible. Standardized extracts decrease lot-to-lot variability and facilitate cross-comparison among extracts from different physicians. Factors that decrease stability of extracts include storage duration, increasing temperature, and presence of proteases. Refrigeration of extracts and addition of glycerine diminishes loss of potency (25). Grading of Skin Tests Currently no standardized system exists for recording and interpreting skin test results. A simple semiquantitative system that measures wheal and erythema is shown in Table 8. Grading system for skin testing Both positive and negative controls are essential for the proper interpretation and the assessment of individual variability in skin reactivity. Because large reactions at adjacent test sites might coalesce, the test sites should be at least 2 to 5 cm apart (10). Tests that do not clearly have a greater reaction than the negative control must be considered indeterminate. Late Phase Response Occasionally delayed reactions characterized by erythema and induration will occur at the site of skin tests. They become apparent 1 to 2 hours after application, peak at 6 to 12 hours, and usually disappear after 24 to 48 hours ( 27). In contrast to the immediate reactions, they are inhibited by conventional doses of corticosteroids but not by antihistamines (28,29). Some investigators believe there is a correlation and others do not ( 30,31,32,33 and 34). Adverse Reactions from Skin Testing Large local reactions at the site of testing are the most common adverse reaction from skin testing. Systemic reactions are rare and usually occur within 20 minutes of testing ( 35,36). Emergency treatment should be available during testing, and patients should be kept under observation for at least for 20 minutes after testing. Patients with unstable asthma are at a greater risk of an adverse reaction from skin testing and should not be tested until their asthma is stabilized. Both false-negative and false-positive skin test results may occur because of improper technique or material. Improperly prepared or outdated extracts may contain nonspecific irritants or may not be physiologic with respect to pH or osmolarity, and therefore produce false-positive results. The injection of an excessive volume can result in mechanical irritation of the skin and false-positive results. Interpretation of skin tests Population studies have demonstrated that asymptomatic individuals may have positive skin test results ( 37,38). A positive skin test result only demonstrates the presence of IgE antibody that is specifically directed against the test antigen. A positive result does not mean that a person has an allergic disease, or that an allergic person has ever had a clinically significant reaction to the specific antigen. The number and variety of prick tests performed depend on clinical aspects of the particular case. The antigens used may vary because of the prevalence of particular antigens in any geographic location. Satisfactory information usually can be obtained with a small number of tests if they are carefully chosen. With inhalant antigens, correlating positive skin tests with a history that suggests clinical sensitivity may strongly incriminate an antigen. Conversely, a negative skin test and a negative history exclude the antigen as being clinically significant. Interpretation of skin tests that do not correlate with the clinical history or physical findings is much more difficult. If there is no history suggesting sensitivity to an antigen, and the skin test result is positive, the patient can be evaluated again during a period of maximal exposure to the antigen. At that time, if there are no symptoms or physical findings of sensitivity, the skin test result may be ignored. A three-year study of college students demonstrated that asymptomatic students who were skin test positive were more likely to develop allergic rhinitis 3 years later than skin test negative asymptomatic students. Patients with a history that strongly suggests an allergic disease or clinical sensitivity to specific antigens may have negative skin test results for the suspected antigens. It is difficult to make an allergic diagnosis in these cases because, when properly done, negative results indicate that no specific IgE antibody is present. These patients may be requestioned and reexamined, and the possibility of false-negative skin test results must be excluded. Because there is no normal limit for IgE concentrations, measuring total IgE is not of diagnostic significance and rarely provides useful information ( 43,44).
These are two of many known examples in which molecular data have been used to distinguish subtypes of malignancies with different prognoses and that benefit from different treatments kamagra polo 100mg for sale erectile dysfunction frequency. The proposed Knowledge Network of Disease could be expected to lead to many more insights of this type buy kamagra polo with amex erectile dysfunction pump walgreens. A Knowledge Network in which diseases are increasingly understood and defined in terms of molecular pathways has the potential to accelerate discovery of underlying disease mechanisms generic kamagra polo 100 mg erectile dysfunction medication side effects. In a molecularly based Knowledge Network, a researcher could readily compare the molecular fingerprint (such as one defined by the transcriptome or proteome) of a disease with an unknown pathogenic mechanism to the information available for better understood diseases. Similarities between the molecular profiles of diseases with known and unknown pathogenic mechanisms might point directly to shared disease mechanisms, or at least serve as a starting point for directed molecular interrogation of cellular pathways likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of both diseases. A Knowledge Network that integrates data from many different levels of disease determinants collected from individual subjects over time may reveal new opportunities for detection and early diagnosis. In some instances, these advances would follow from the new insights into pathogenic mechanisms discussed above. In other cases, however, molecular profiles may prove sufficiently predictive of a patient s future health to have substantial clinical utility long before the mechanistic rationale of the correlation is understood. A Knowledge Network of Disease that links information from many levels of disease determinants, from genetic to environment and lifestyle, will improve our ability to predict and survey for diseases. Following outcomes in individual patients over time will allow the prognostic value of molecular-based classifications to be tested and, ideally, verified. Obviously, the clinical utility of identifying disease predispositions depends on the availability of interventions that would either prevent or delay onset of disease or perhaps ameliorate disease severity. The ultimate goal of most clinical research is to improve disease treatments and health outcomes. Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease 41 Knowledge Network of Disease and its derived taxonomy may be expected to impact disease treatment and to contribute to improved health outcomes for patients. As many of the examples already discussed illustrate, finer grained diagnoses often are the key to choosing optimal treatments. In some instances, a molecularly informed disease classification offers improved options for disease prevention or management even when different disease sub-types are treated identically (see Box 3. A Knowledge Network that integrates data from multiple levels of disease determinants will also facilitate the development of new therapies by identifying new therapeutic targets and may suggest off-label use of existing drugs. In other cases, the identification of links between environmental factors or lifestyle choices and disease incidence may make it possible to reduce disease incidence by lifestyle interventions. Importantly, as discussed below, the Committee believes the Knowledge Network and its underlying Information Commons would enable the discovery of improved treatments by providing a powerful new research resource that would bring together researchers with diverse skills and integrate knowledge about disease processes in an unprecedented way. Indeed, it is quite possible that the transition to a modernized discovery model in which disease data generated during the course of normal healthcare and analyzed by a diverse set of researchers would ultimately prove to be a Knowledge Network of Disease s greatest legacy for biomedical research. Consequently, patients and physicians must currently make decisions about whether to undertake more intensive cancer surveillance (for example, by breast magnetic resonance imaging or vaginal ultrasound) without being able clearly to assess the risks and benefits of such increased screening and the anxiety and potential morbidity that arises from inevitable false positives. Furthermore, some patients elect to undergo prophylactic mastectomies or oophorectomies without definitive information about the extent to which these drastic procedures actually would reduce their cancer risk. Studies attempting to quantify these risks have largely focused on particular ethnic groups in which a limited set of mutations occur at high enough frequencies to allow reliable conclusions from analyses carried out on a practical scale. Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease 42 individual patients, health-care providers, and payers, by making it possible to avoid unnecessary screening and treatment while reducing cancer incidence and promoting early detection. Molecular similarities amongst seemingly unrelated diseases would also be of direct relevance to drug discovery as it would lead to targeted investigation of disease-relevant pathways that are shared between molecularly related diseases. In addition, ongoing access to molecular profiles and health histories of large numbers of patients taking already-approved drugs would undoubtedly lead to improved drug safety by allowing identification of individuals at higher-than-normal risk of adverse drug reactions. Indeed, our limited understanding of and lack of a robust system for studying rare adverse reactions is a major barrier to the introduction of new drugs in our increasingly risk-aversive and litigious society. Major disparities in the health profiles of different racial, ethnic, and socio-economic groups within our diverse society have proven discouragingly refractory to amelioration. As discussed above, it is quite likely that key contributors to these disparities can be most effectively addressed through public-health measures and other public policies that have little to do with the molecular basis of disease, at least as we presently understand it. However, the Committee regards the Information Commons and Knowledge Network of Disease, as potentially powerful tools for understanding and addressing health disparities because they would be informed by data on the environmental and social factors that influence the health of individual patients,. Researchers and policy makers would then be better able to sort out the full diversity of possible reasons for observed individual and group differences in health and to devise effective strategies to prevent and combat them. A Hierarchy of Large Datasets Would Be the Foundation of the Knowledge Network of Disease and Its Practical Applications The establishment of a Knowledge Network, and its research and clinical applications, would depend on the availability of a hierarchy of large, well-integrated datasets describing what we know about human disease. These datasets would establish the foundation for the New Taxonomy and many other basic and applied activities throughout the health-care system. The Information Commons would contain the raw information about individual patients from which meaningful links and relationships could be derived. Such an information platform would need to be accessible by users across the entire spectrum of research and clinical care, including payers. Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease 43 community and extracted directly from the medical records of participating patients. At the center of a comprehensive biomedical information network is an Information Commons which contains current disease information linked to individual patients and is continuously updated by a wide set of new data emerging though observational studies during the course of normal health care. The data in the Information Commons and Knowledge Network serve three purposes: 1) they provide the basis to generate a dynamic, adaptive system which informs taxonomic classification of disease; 2) they provide the foundation for novel clinical approaches (diagnostics, treatments strategies) and 3) they provide a resource for basic discovery. Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease 44 disease classification) and treatment. The fine-grained nature of the taxonomic classification w in clinical decision making by more accurately defining disease. The Information Commons should register all measurements with respect to individuals so that the multitude of influences on pathophysiological states can be viewed at scales that span all the way from the molecular to the social level. Only in this way could, for example, individual environmental exposures be matched to individual changes in molecular profiles. These data would need to be stored in an escrowed, encrypted depository that allows graded release of data depending on the questions asked, the access level of the individual making the inquiry, and other parameters that would undoubtedly emerge in the course of pilot studies. The Committee realizes that this is a radical approach and intense public education and outreach about the value of the Information Commons to the progress of medicine would be essential to harness informed volunteerism, the support of disease-specific advocacy groups, and the engagement of other stakeholders. The Committee regards careful handling of policies to ensure privacy as the central issue in its entire vision of the Information Commons, the Knowledge Network of Disease, and the New Taxonomy. The Knowledge Network of Disease, created by integrating data in the Information Commons with fundamental biological knowledge, drawn from the biomedical literature and existing community databases such as Genbank, would be the centerpiece of the informational resources underlying the New Taxonomy. The links could be one-to-one but most commonly would be many-to-one, and one-to-many (e. Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease 45 layers could be characterized through a variety of representations that attempt to extract meaning from the Information Commons. Meanwhile, different types of lymphomas, defined by transcriptome analysis, may have distinct metabolomic profiles. The similarities of multiple diseases could be discerned either from relationships among the networks of individual parameters (e. A highly interconnected Knowledge Network would link multiple individual networks of parameters in a flexible way. A user could chose to interrogate only a small part of the network by limiting his or her analysis to a single information layer, or even a small portion of this layer; alternatively, a user could interrogate the complex interrelationship of multiple parameters. High flexibility ensures easy cross-comparison and cross-correlation of any desired dataset, making it a versatile tool for a wide spectrum of applications ranging from basic research to clinical studies and healthy system administration.
Blinding (performance bias and detection Low risk Participants were blinded from treatment bias) groupallocation generic 100mg kamagra polo fast delivery erectile dysfunction doctors in orlando,andstudymedicationand All outcomes - patients? Krivoy 2001 (Continued) Blinding (performance bias and detection Low risk Outcome assessors were unblinded generic kamagra polo 100mg with amex erectile dysfunction pills by bayer. How- bias) ever knowing the outcome of interest buy kamagra polo 100mg without a prescription loss of erectile dysfunction causes, All outcomes - outcome assessors? Low risk The groups were similar in baseline mea- suresexcept gender; there were more female participants in the placebo group (P = 0. Low risk Participantswere disallowed the use of anti- inammatory drugs within the trial pe- riod. Period: seven days Participants One hundred and sixty-one participants were randomly allocated to either group. The trial medications were not available to the providersinthe trial country at the time and all stakeholders assumed both medica- tions held active ingredients Blinding (performance bias and detection Low risk This was a double-blinded trial. While bias) there were reservations with the blinding All outcomes - outcome assessors? Low risk Group comparison was similar with no sig- nicant differences noted between groups at baseline Co-interventions avoided or similar? Low risk Anti-inammatory drugs were disallowed during the trial phase with paracetamol used as an emergency medication Compliance acceptable? Rapid improvement and three appli- cations per day may have inuenced non- compliance. Period: three weeks Participants Sixty-one patients were allocated to acupressure with lavender oil (N = 32) or conven- tional treatment (N = 29). Risk of bias Bias Authors judgement Support for judgement Random sequence generation (selection Low risk Participants were allocated by the research bias) team consulting a random numbers table Allocation concealment (selection bias) High risk Patients and clinicians were aware of group allocation. Blinding (performance bias and detection High risk Intervention treatment and control treat- bias) ment were dissimilar with no blinding All outcomes - patients? Blinding (performance bias and detection High risk Providers were aware and involved in the bias) treatment allocation process All outcomes - providers? Blinding (performance bias and detection Unclear risk Unclear from text bias) All outcomes - outcome assessors? Incomplete outcome data (attrition bias) Low risk Of the 61 original participants, 10 partici- All outcomes - drop-outs? High risk No discussion or controlling for medi- cation or additional treatment modalities noted Compliance acceptable? High risk There was no description of the control group s therapy beyond being a conven- tional therapy Selective Reporting Low risk All pre-specied outcomes were reported. Lee 2012 Conference abstract only, unknown participants type, unknown if a herbal medicine Liu 2013 Abstract or full text not available. Pabst 2013 Mixed low back and upper back pain with no subgroup analyses Pach 2011 Herbal medicine given by injection Reme 2011 Not a herbal medicine. Previous search strategies August 2013 Embase The animal study lter was updated from 2010 1. January 2011 Medline Back terms and herbal medicine terms were updated from 2009 1. Unclear reected the fact that there was insufcient information to determine whether this criterion was fullled or not. There is a high risk of bias if participants or investigators enrolling participants could possibly foresee assignments and thus introduce selection bias, such as allocation based on: using an open random allocation schedule (e. Blinding of participants Performance bias due to knowledge of the allocated interventions by participants during the study There is a low risk of performance bias if blinding of participants was ensured and it was unlikely that the blinding could have been broken; or if there was no blinding or incomplete blinding, but the review authors judge that the outcome is not likely to be inuenced by lack of blinding. Blinding of personnel or care providers (performance bias) Performance bias due to knowledge of the allocated interventions by personnel or care providers during the study There is a low risk of performance bias if blinding of personnel was ensured and it was unlikely that the blinding could have been broken; or if there was no blinding or incomplete blinding, but the review authors judge that the outcome is not likely to be inuenced by lack of blinding. Blinding of outcome assessors (detection bias) Detection bias due to knowledge of the allocated interventions by outcome assessors There is low risk of detection bias if the blinding of the outcome assessment was ensured and it was unlikely that the blinding could have been broken; or if there was no blinding or incomplete blinding, but the review authors judge that the outcome is not likely to be inuenced by lack of blinding, or: for patient-reported outcomes in which the patient was the outcome assessor (e. The percentage of withdrawals and drop-outs should not exceed 20% for short-term follow-up and 30% for long-term follow-up and should not lead to substantial bias (these percentages are commonly used but arbitrary, not supported by literature) (van Tulder 2003). Selective reporting (reporting bias) Reporting bias due to selective outcome reporting There is low risk of reporting bias if the study protocol is available and all of the study s pre-specied (primary and secondary) outcomes that are of interest in the review have been reported in the pre-specied way, or if the study protocol is not available but it is clear that the published reports include all expected outcomes, including those that were pre-specied (convincing text of this nature may be uncommon). There is a high risk of reporting bias if not all of the study s pre-specied primary outcomes have been reported; one or more primary outcomes is reported using measurements, analysis methods or subsets of the data (e. Group similarity at baseline (selection bias) Bias due to dissimilarity at baseline for the most important prognostic indicators. Co-interventions (performance bias) Bias because co-interventions were different across groups There is low risk of bias if there were no co-interventions or they were similar between the index and control groups (van Tulder 2003). Antibiotics are one class of antimicrobials, a larger group which also includes anti-viral, anti-fungal, and anti-parasitic drugs. The first antibiotic was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928 in a significant breakthrough for medical science. Antibiotics are among the most frequently prescribed medications in modern medicine. Side effects of antibiotics Antibiotics can literally save lives and are effective in treating illnesses caused by bacterial infections. Many of these side effects are not dangerous, although they can make life miserable while the drug is being taken. Allergic reactions cause swelling of the face, itching and a skin rash and, in severe cases, breathing difficulties. The type of antibiotics you take depends on the type of infection you have and what kind of antibiotics are known to be effective. The main classes of antibiotics: Aminoglycosides Cephalosporins Fluoroquinolones Macrolides Penicillins Tetracyclines Macrolides There are a couple of new relatives of erythromycin (azithromycin and clarithromycin) that work the same way, but kill more bugs and have slightly fewer side effects. Macrolide antibiotics are used to treat respiratory tract infections, genital, gastrointestinal tract, soft tissue infections caused by susceptible strains of specific bacteria. Macrolides bind with ribosomes from susceptible bacteria to prevent protein production. This action is mainly bacteriostatic, but can also be bactericidal in high concentrations. Macrolides cause very little allergy problems compared to the penicillins and cephalosporins, the biggest concern with these medicines is that they can irritate the stomach. The most commonly-prescribed macrolides: erythromycin clarithromycin azithromycin roxithromycin Aminoglycosides Aminoglycoside antibiotics are used to treat infections caused by gram-negative bacteria. Aminoglycosides may be used along with penicillins or cephalosporins to give a two-pronged attack on the bacteria. When injected, their side effects include possible damage to the ears and to the kidneys. This can be minimized by checking the amount of the drug in the blood and adjusting the dose so that there is enough drug to kill bacteria but not too much of it. The most commonly-prescribed aminoglycosides: amikacin gentamicin kanamycin neomycin streptomycin tobramycin Cephalosporins Cephalosporins are grouped into "generations" by their antimicrobial properties. Cephalosporins are categorized chronically, and are therefore divided into first, second, and third generations.
Lymphocyte predominant More likely to involve Non-hodgkin s Lymphoma extranodal sites? All works and portions of works published on Sabinet are the copyright of Sabinet buy kamagra polo 100 mg overnight delivery erectile dysfunction louisville ky. Disqualifications purchase kamagra polo paypal erectile dysfunction drugs after prostate surgery, vacation of office 100mg kamagra polo fast delivery erectile dysfunction young adults, filling of vacancies and declaration of interest 7. Prohibition on the sale of medicines which are subject to registration and are not registered 15. Prohibition on sale of medicines which do not comply with prescribed requirements and furnishing of information regarding medicines to the council 20. Publication of information relating to medicine, Scheduled substance or medical device 22C. Minister may prohibit the manufacture, sale or use of certain veterinary medicines 37. Short title Schedule 1 Schedule 2 Schedule 3 Schedule 4 Schedule 5 Schedule 6 Schedule 7 Schedule 8 Schedule 9 1. Establishment, powers and functions of Medicines Control Council (1) There is hereby established a council to be known as the Medicines Control Council, which may exercise the powers and shall perform the functions conferred upon or assigned to the council by this Act. Constitution of council The council shall consist of so many members, but not more than 24, as the Minister may from time to time determine and appoint. Period of office and remuneration of members of the council (1) A member of the council shall, subject to the provisions of section 6(3), be appointed for a period of five years but a new council shall be appointed within six months after the date of commencement of the Medicines and Related Substances Control Amendment Act, 1997. Chairman and vice-chairman (1) One of the members of the council shall be designated by the Minister as chairman of the council and another member shall be designated by the Minister as vice-chairman to act as chairman during the absence of the chairman. Quorum, majority decision and chairman s casting vote (1) A majority of all the members of the council shall form a quorum for any meeting of the council. Appointment of executive committee and other committees (1) The council may appoint - (a) subject to the approval of the Minister, from among its members an executive committee; and [Para. Appointment of Registrar and Deputy Registrar of Medicines (1) The Minister may, after consultation with the council, appoint a Registrar and one or more Deputy Registrars or revoke such an appointment. Medicines register The registrar shall keep in the prescribed form a register, to be known as the medicines register, in which he shall register all medicines the registration of which has been approved by the council, and in which he shall enter all such particulars in regard to such medicines and the holder of the certificate of registration in respect of such medicines as are required by this Act to be entered therein. Prohibition on the sale of medicines which are subject to registration and are not registered (1) Save as provided in this section or sections 21 and 22A, no person shall sell any medicine which is subject to registration by virtue of a resolution published in terms of subsection (2) unless it is registered. Registration of medicines (1) Every application for the registration of a medicine shall be submitted to the registrar in the prescribed form and shall be accompanied by the prescribed particulars and samples of the relevant medicine and by the prescribed registration fee. Amendment of entries in register (1) The entry made in the register with respect to any medicine may on application by the holder of the certificate of registration issued in respect of such medicine be amended by the registrar with the approval of the council. Transfer of certificates of registration (1) A certificate of registration may with the approval of the council be transferred by the holder thereof to any other person. Measures to ensure supply of more affordable medicines The Minister may prescribe conditions for the supply of more affordable medicines in certain circumstances so as to protect the health of the public, and in particular may- (a) notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in the Patents Act 1978 (Act No. Cancellation of registration (1) If the council - (a) is of the opinion that any person has failed to comply with any condition subject to which any medicine has been registered; or (b) is of the opinion that any medicine does not comply with any prescribed requirement; or (c) is of the opinion that it is not in the public interest that any medicine shall be available to the public, the council shall cause notice in writing to be given accordingly by the registrar to the holder of the certificate of registration issued in respect of that medicine. Labels and advertisements (1) No person shall sell any medicine or Scheduled substance unless the immediate container or the package in which that medicine or Scheduled substance is sold bears a label stating the prescribed particulars. Bonusing No person shall supply any medicine according to a bonus system, rebate system or any other incentive scheme. Marketing of medicines The Minister shall after consultation with the pharmaceutical industry and other stakeholders, make regulations relating to the marketing of medicines, and such regulations shall also provide for an enforceable Code of Practice. Prohibition on sale of medicines which do not comply with prescribed requirements and furnishing of information regarding medicines to the council (1) No person shall sell any medicine unless it complies with the prescribed requirements. Publication or distribution of false advertisements concerning medicines (1) No person shall - (a) publish or distribute or in any other manner whatsoever bring to the notice of the public or cause or permit to be published or distributed or to be so brought to the notice of the public any false or misleading advertisement concerning any medicine; or [Para. Council may authorize sale of unregistered medicine for certain purposes (1) The council may in writing authorize any person to sell during a specified period to any specified person or institution a specified quantity of any particular medicine which is not registered. Control of medicines and Scheduled substances (1) Subject to this section, no person shall sell, have in his or her possession or manufacture any medicine or Scheduled substance, except in accordance with the prescribed conditions. Period of validity and renewal of licence A licence issued under section 22C shall be valid for the prescribed period but may be renewed on application in the prescribed manner and before the prescribed time or such later time as the Director-General or the council, as the case may be, may allow and on payment of the prescribed fee. Pricing committee (1) The Minister shall appoint, for a period not exceeding five years, such persons as he or she may deem fit to be members of a committee to be known as the pricing committee. Purchase and sale of medicines by wholesalers (1) (a) No wholesaler shall purchase medicines from any source other than from the original manufacturer or from the primary importer of the finished product. Disposal of undesirable medicines (1) If the council is of the opinion that it is not in the public interest that any medicine shall be made available to the public, it may - (a) by notice in writing transmitted by registered post to any person direct that person; or (b) by notice in the Gazette direct any person, to return any quantity of such medicine which he has in his possession to the manufacturer thereof or (in the case of any imported medicine) to the importer concerned or to deliver or send it to any other person designated by the council. Privileges of council and committees The council or a committee appointed under section 9(1), 22G(1) or 24(1) or any member of the council or of any such committee shall not be liable in respect of anything done in good faith under this Act. Inspectors (1) The Director-General may authorize such persons as inspectors, as he may consider necessary for the proper enforcement of this Act. Analysts, pharmacologists and pathologists The Director-General may grant such authority to such analysts, pharmacologists and pathologists as he may consider necessary for the proper enforcement of this Act. Powers of inspectors (1) An inspector may, at all reasonable times- (a) enter upon- (i) any place or premises from which- (aa) a person authorized under this (Act to compound or dispense medicines or scheduled substances; (bb) the holder of a licence as contemplated in section 22C(1)(b): (cc) the holder of a certificate of registration of a medicine, conducts business. Offences Any person who - (a) obstructs or hinders any inspector in the exercise of his or her powers or the performance of his or her duties under this Act; or [Para. Penalties (1) Any person who is convicted of an offence referred to in section 29 shall be liable to a fine, or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding 10 years. Funds of council (1) The funds of the council shall consist of- (a) State funds received through the Department of Health; (b) fees raised and interest on overdue fees; (c) money accruing to the council from any other source. Delegation of powers (1) The Minister may in writing authorise the Director-General or any officer of the Department of Health to exercise any of the powers conferred upon the Minister by this Act other than the powers referred to in sections 3, 24(1) and 35, or to exercise or perform any of the duties or functions conferred or imposed on the Minister in terms of this Act. Operation of Act in relation to other laws The provisions of this Act shall be in addition to and not in substitution for any other law which is not in conflict with or inconsistent with this Act. Short title This Act shall be called the Medicines and Related Substances Act, 1965. Milano scientifc landscape, and therefore confrmed the need Via Celoria 16 20133 Milano Italy for their continuation. Below: (left) Advanced approaches to high intensity laser-driven ion acceleration, see page 123. Examples and specifc topics 128 Annexes 145 Foreword l l l Nuclear physics is a coin that has two sides: basic research and applications. Without basic 3 research there would be little to be applied; applications resulting from basic research contribute to the wealth and health of society. Modern medicine benefts tremendously from nuclear physics, both for diagnosis and for therapy. The input received from the community was incorporated, resulting in the report now at hand.