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By J. Corwyn. West Virginia State University.

An alternative approach for those culturable parasites is to utilize their secretory products as antigens avana 100 mg line causes of erectile dysfunction in late 30s. These are released in very low quantities but even these small amounts are adequate for some test systems (e discount avana express erectile dysfunction otc treatment. Population antibody levels can be of value for the assessment of purchase avana 100 mg visa impotence lower back pain, and for indicating changes in, endemicity, especially following malarial control activities. In addition, it can be used to detect remaining foci of transmission or areas of re-introduction of malaria control or eradication programmes. Best results are obtained with the homologous human malaria parasites or their simian analogues. Plasmodium falciparum cultured in vitro can satisfy the antigen requirements for falciparum malaria but P. The use of rodent and avian malarial parasites is to be discouraged because of their limited cross-reactivity. The intent is to provide an immunoassay alternative to the boring, time-consuming, subjective examination of blood films for malaria parasites. To date the immunoassay methods, either based on inhibition principles or by competition, have not quite equalled visual blood-film scanning. Chagas disease [9] The diagnosis of chronic Chagas disease is virtually dependent on serology. Previously, complement fixation was used widely but its technical difficulties and lower sensitivity make the new tests more popular. Cross-reactions can occur with sera from people with visceral or muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis, so clinical information is also necessary where these diseases could be a problem. Current work in progress suggests that monoclonal antibodies may be capable of discriminating even between different types of T. This could lead to a much greater understanding of the geographical pathology of the disease. African trypanosomiasis [11] The main purpose of serology in this disease is to detect parasitological inapparent cases and to monitor the efficacy of treatment. Gross elevation of serum IgM has been used as a screening test but of course there are numerous false positives and some infections are actually overlooked. Leishmaniasis [12] Visceral leishmaniasis is characterized by the production of excessive amounts of IgG and high levels of specific antibody. Serology can be of use in screening for the presence of the disease and for assessment of chemotherapy. Specific antibody levels are claimed to decrease rapidly after effective therapy but this is less well documented. Serology is of less value in cutaneous leishmaniasis but it can be useful in differentiating the muco-cutaneous disease from blastomycoses. Amoebiasis [13] The chief applications of serology are for the detection of invasive amoebiasis and the differential diagnosis of hepatic abscess and inflammatory bowel disease. However, problems can occur in highly endemic areas since 10% or more of the population without disease can have residual antibody from past infection. Schistosomiasis [15] In this disease the requirements are for tests which can be used for sero- epidemiological work and for individual diagnostic purposes. In addition, it would be valuable if serology could be used to monitor the efficacy of treatment. However, low sensitivity and problems relating to anticomplementary factors in many sera have restricted its use. When these tests were used with crude antigens similar problems of cross-reactivity were encountered. However, the purification of antigens has led to a marked improve­ ment in specificity. Nematode diseases [16] There is a real need for good specific serological tests for onchocerciasis and filariasis. The chief problems are due to crossreactions, since these nematodes share many antigens. Hydatid diseases [17] The immuno-diagnosis of echinococcosis is especially difficult because some patients have no detectable antibody or very low levels, even at present. Thus, the hydatid serology is especially difficult in areas where these other diseases are endemic. However, their high sensitivity is of little extra value because of the specificity problems. Progress has been made in this respect but as yet the problem is not completely solved. There is now a consensus of opinion that the labelled reagent methods used are satisfactory but the antigens employed are often not acceptable. It should be a matter of high priority to ensure that more specific antigens become available. Voller stated that the reasons for the emphasis on Ab detection were mainly historical; the trend was in favour of Ag detection. It might be possible to distinguish subjects with latent disease from those presenting more acute health hazards in terms of Ab or Ag levels. Isolation of organisms by culture is usually time-consuming and often unrewarding. Serological tests for antibody detection in serum for diagnostic purposes have not been useful since antibody levels persist long after the disease has subsided. The assay sensitivity was 1X 103 organisms/mL, or an equivalent of 1 ng/mL of sonicate antigen. There was very little (5%) cross-reactivity against other mycobacterial species except for Mycobact. Sixty-two samples were negative on smear and culture examination for tubercle bacilli. While 20 sputum samples were negative on smear they later turned out to be positive on culture. Abdominal cases were divided into definitely proven tuberculosis, either by laparoscopy and visualization of peritoneal tubercles, or culture positivity of samples. This very poor yield of 1%positivity despite a sensitive detection method was puzzling. It has been shown to be useful as a diagnostic test in the evaluation of pulmonary, pleural, ascitic and meningeal tuberculosis. The method is sensitive and specific and has the advantage that relatively crude antigen preparations at low concentrations can be used. Data revealed that the effect was caused in part from non-specific adherence of antibody to the solid phase during the first incubation and its subsequent elution from the solid phase and its reactivity in solution with most of the antigen during the second incubation. This problem was minimized by (a) using a high dilution of the test specimen, and (b) including animal serum and detergent in the specimen diluent.

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In histological study buy 100 mg avana with visa erectile dysfunction drugs for heart patients, styloid (rod shap) crystals were present in the upper surface and anomocytic stomata were present in the lower surface of the lamina buy discount avana on-line erectile dysfunction desensitization. The cortical region of the young stem consisted of angular collenchymatous cells toward the outside and chlorenchymatous cells toward the inside buy discount avana 50mg erectile dysfunction treatment massage. Pith region of the mature stem was characterized by pitted lignified parenchymatous cells. Phelloderm of the root was composed of parenchymatous cells and groups of sclereids. In the surface view of fruit, anomocytic stoma, unicellular and glandular trichomes were present. In transverse section, the epicarp and endocarp were composed of tightly packed sclereids. The cotyledon consisted of the epidermis and the spongy parenchymatous cells with aleurone grains. The powdered leaves and the whole plant were tested for the phytochemical constituents and physicochemical properties. Alkaloid, carbohydrate, glycoside, phenolic compound, saponin, flavonoid, terpenoid, steroid, starch, tannin, reducing sugar and ά-amino acid were present but cyanogenic glycoside was absent in both samples. According to physicochemical examination, the leaves and the whole plant were the most soluble in methanol, ethanol and water. According to the chemical tests and spectroscopic data, the four isolated compounds were supposed to be methyl abrusgenate, terpenoid, abruslactone A and precatorine. In antimicrobial activity, the various solvent extracts of leaves and the isolated compounds of the whole plant were tested by using agar well diffusion method. The ethanolic extract especially more sensitive against Bacillus pumalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Analysis on nutritional values was conducted on the leaves of Abrus precatorius L.. The result revealed that protein, fat, vitamin B1, vitamin C and carbohydrate were present in leaves. The acute toxicity of aqueous eatract and 70% ethanolic extract from the leaves of Abrus precatorius L. It was observed that the both extracts were free from harmful effect during observation period of two weeks with maximum permissible dose of 12g/kg. The leaves produced significant reduction in the blood glucose concentration when compared with that of control group. The plants are identified with the help of available literature for morphological characters by using the vegetative and reproductive parts. In morphological study, the plant is annual herb, leaves opposite and decussate, flowers, ferile stamens and staminodes (sterile) alternate with each other. The cells of upper and lower surfaces of lamina were wavy and anisocytic type of stomata was present on both surfaces. Calcium oxalate crystals were present in mesophyll tissues of lamina and parenchymatous cells of midrib, petiole and stem. Collenchymatous cells were present in transverse section of midrib, petiole and stem. In transverse section of stem, collenchymatous cells beneath the ridges and collenchymatous cells beneath the furrows. Two medullary bundles are fused in the lower internodes but free in the upper internodes and opposite to each other in the pith region. Alteranation layers of vascular bundles were present in transverse section of root. The qualitative analysis examnation was showed the presence of alkaloids, ά-amino acids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolic compounds, reducing sugar, saponins, starch, steroids, terpenoids and tannins. In physicochemical properties, the powdered samples were more soluble in polar solvents. From this result, potassium (K), calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), sulphur (S), iron (Fe) were found to be principal elements and manganese (Mn), rubidium (Rb), strontium (St), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) are found as trace elements. It revealed that the presence of carbohydrates, fats, fibres, proteins, vitamin B1 and vitamin C. Isolation of the chemical constituents of the plant extract was carried out by using column chromatography. According to spectroscopic data three isolated compound were assumed ecdysterone, terpenoid and aurone. In antimicrobial test, various solvent extracts and isolated compounds were tested on six pathogenic microorganisms. It was found that all are well potent except that in petroleum ether and aqueous extracts of this plant. The isolated compounds A, B and C showed the highest activity on Bacillus pumalis. It was observed that 70% extract did not show any toxic effect at the maximum permissible dose of 12g/kg. The hypoglycaemic activity of 70% ethanolic and aqueous extracts was also studies on adrenaline-induced hyperglycaemic rat’s model. The percentage inhibition of blood glucose levels of aqueous extract and glibenclamide were not significantly different. The collected plants were dried, powdered and stored in air tight bottles for further investigation. In microscopical study, the cells of the upper and lower surfaces of the lamina are slightly wavy and diacytic stomata are present on both surfaces. In transverse section of the stem, the vascular bundles are oval shaped, 2 large bundles are on the opposite side, the other between them are small, collateral type. The preliminary phytochemical test was carried out to detect chemical constituents. The presence of terpenoid and steroid were found in the phytochemical examination. The isolated compounds stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were identified by Thin Layer Chromatography using benzene: ethyl acetate (15:1) and isolated lupeol using hexane: isopropyl alcohol (16:1). These extracts were used to screen for antibacterial activities in vitro with six test organism. It was observed that mice were found to be alive and healthy during the observation period of 14 days even with maximum permissible dose level of 18g/kg per orally. In vivo screening was done for inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of Alternanthera sessilis (L. The results showed that significant hypoglycaemic effects have been observed when tested on rabbits model. These plants were collected from Thardukan (Hlawga), Shwe Pyi Thar Township, Yangon Division. The collected plants were studied, classified and identified by the literature references to confirm its identity. The leaves base was cordately with a deep, narrow sinus and the twining petioles were present.

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