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Abdel-Aleem H order erectafil australia impotence 25 years old, d’Arcangues C order 20 mg erectafil with amex erectile dysfunction age 30, Vogelsong KK order discount erectafil erectile dysfunction juice drink, Gülmezoglu AM. Again, A couple is regarded as subfertile if they have not we do not call someone subfertile when he/she achieved pregnancy after 2 years of having regular had a (recent) miscarriage. This definition needs some Because most of the time you do not yet know if a explanation: person is not able to make or become pregnant in • To achieve pregnancy is to have vaginal inter- the future it is better to speak of subfertility. Sub- and infertility is a major public health problem • Regular intercourse means at least once or twice in low-resource countries including sub-Saharan around ovulation each month (cycle days 11–14 Africa (level of evidence 1), where a prevalence in a regular cycle). In many • The duration of 2 years: many couples who are countries motherhood is the only way for women normally fertile will come earlier to a clinic for to enhance their status in the community, and investigation or advice on how to achieve preg- infertility is associated with marked social stigma nancy. If women have a regular cycle and are and might be detrimental to a woman’s position aged <35 years we do not advise starting investi- within the family and the community. To over- gations on these couples because it is not cost- come infertility, men and women spend consider- able sums of money in treatment1,2. Infertility is a serious reproductive health problem for a society, but has a low priority on We make a distinction between primary and the political and health agenda of low-resource secondary subfertility: countries. International and national policy makers • Primary subfertility: a woman was never pregnant focus on the reduction of maternal and neonatal or a man never made any woman pregnant. At this time, ment of infertility, it is important to study the men- the ovum (the egg which is not visible with the strual cycle again. The cycle starts on the first day of bare eye) will come out of the follicle and can the period (when vaginal blood loss starts) and stops be fertilized. Luteal phase of the cycle: this is the phase in regular if the cycle is between 25 and 35 days: 91– 5 which a fertilized egg (called an embryo at this 97% of those women will have an ovulatory cycle. In this We say that a woman has oligomenorrhea if the phase the endometrium is prepared by the hor- cycle is >35 days and amenorrhea if the cycle is >6 mone progesterone which is produced by the months. On ultrasound in (follicular phase) of the cycle is not the same in all the luteal phase the endometrium is white and women. The length of the second (luteal) phase is always 14 days so ovulation takes place 14 days be- fore the next period starts and you can only deter- mine ovulation retrospectively. Menstruation: discharge of the endometrium (on day 1 to approximately day 4–7). Follicular phase: starts after the blood loss stopped. In this phase the follicle is stimulated, grows and produces estrogen. The growth of the follicle is under the influence of the hor- mone follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), produced by the pituitary gland. When you make an ultrasound in the follicular phase of the cycle you will see that the endometrium is formed in three layers (Figure 2) and that a Figure 2 An ovary with more follicles. The growth of the follicle which we call the dominant follicle will rupture follicle is (start counting only if the follicle is when it is 2 cm in diameter. Courtesy David van Ham rupture (we call this ovulation) when it is 2 cm. Figure 3 Endometrium in the follicular phase of the Figure 1 Schematic view of the different phases in the cycle: you can clearly see the triple line. Courtesy David female menstrual cycle van Ham 171 GYNECOLOGY FOR LESS-RESOURCED LOCATIONS Table 1 Common causes of subfertility In woman No ovulation PCOS Hyperprolactinemia Early menopause Hypophysis/hormone abnormalities Tubes are not patent Hydrosalpinx Adhesions Proximal tube blockage Endometriosis Figure 4 Endometrium in the luteal phase of the cycle: Cervical hostility you can clearly see that the endometrium does not have triple lines anymore and has become dense. Courtesy In man David van Ham Semen not good enough Azoospermia Oligospermia is no longer triple layered (Figure 4). When the ovum is not fertilized or when the embryo Unexplained is not implanted in the endometrium, the next period will start. For an example of an ultrasound in women with PCOS, see Figure 7. CAUSES OF SUBFERTILITY • Hyperprolactinemia: the pituitary gland in the brain produces too much prolactin (hormone Causes of subfertility could be in the woman, in the that stimulates lactation). Typically these women man, in both, or unexplained (Table 1). In women, will have milk from the breast and a very irregu- the following three problems are the most common lar cycle. Rare causes are large stress: you can ask the patient if she lost a lot of fibroids or Asherman’s syndrome (adhesions of the weight recently. A follicle which ruptures and is fertilized is critical Tubes are not patent for becoming pregnant. Most women (around 91– 97%) with a regular cycle (between 25 and 35 days) This happens often after sexually transmitted infec- will produce a follicle monthly and thus have a tions (STI; see Chapter 17) and often women have chance of becoming pregnant5. The chances for a history of symptoms of STI/pelvic inflammatory women with oligomenorrhea becoming pregnant disease (PID) and sometimes chronic abdominal are less. If you can make an ultrasound you • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): this is a disease often can see hydrosalpinges (see Figure 6). You in which many small follicles grow (you can see can test the patency of the tubes in several ways (see it on ultrasound, per definition >12 follicles of section on Investigations on subfertility). Women will have oligomenorrhea (cycle of more than During the growth and development of a dominant 35 days) and are often (but not always) obese. An example of this mucus becomes very clear and forms threads. This questionnaire can be seen in the Appendix at the only happens around ovulation. You can also develop your own change in mucus is so that the sperm cells can swim form. The important questions are: up via the cervical mucus inside the uterus. In some • Duration of fertility problem: the longer the women, cervical mucus does not change and stays duration of the subfertility, the less likely it is white and is full of leukocytes: the sperm cells can- that you could help this couple. For example, if not use the mucus to swim up towards the follicle. In older women not mean that if sperm is of lower quality that it is (this does not count for men) fertility becomes a completely impossible to make a woman pregnant. Do not waste time and your patients’ Production of sperm cells takes 3 months and is money tackling infertility problems in women negatively influenced by high temperatures as in over the age of 42 years. If you find a poor sperm sample, you should • Ever pregnant before? Unexplained subfertility N Intrauterine fetal death (IUFD). We diagnose unexplained infertility if all the tests N Abortion (spontaneous, induced or dilatation are normal: the woman is ovulating, the tubes are and curettage, D&C). Any history of infec- patent, the cervical mucus is good, the post-coital tion around that abortion? Then the other tube semen; however, the woman has still not become could be damaged as well. This could be because there are many • Periods and cycle aspects in human fertility which are still not under- N Cycle: from first day of period until first day stood. However, other factors may play a role: of next period infrequent or wrongly timed intercourse, sexual N Regular: women with a cycle between 25 problems, intravaginal application of spermicide and 35 days will have in 91–97% of cases an (washing of the vagina, often with traditional herbs, ovulatory cycle directly after intercourse).
Two trials order discount erectafil online erectile dysfunction doctor denver, 1 a retrospective study and the other a randomized controlled trial buy erectafil with a visa erectile dysfunction age factor, were studies of patients admitted to state 140 purchase 20mg erectafil otc erectile dysfunction diabetes, 253 psychiatric hospitals. Atypical antipsychotic drugs Page 54 of 230 Final Report Update 3 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Looking across these studies, it is notable that only 1 study resulted in mean doses of 255 olanzapine at the midpoint of the dosing range. The others were below the bottom of midrange (15 to 20 mg = midpoint). In contrast, all the retrospective studies had mean doses of risperidone within the midrange of 4 to 5 mg, while the trial resulted in a mean dose of 3. The methodology of the retrospective studies, using chart review and pharmacy records, was not the highest level of study design and may have been open to bias. None of the studies adequately controlled for potential confounding in analysis. However, the sample size of the trials was small, with only 40-57 patients per group, and the specific determinants of sample size were poorly reported. Of 7 studies reporting length of inpatient stay, 4 found no statically significant difference 135, 140, 147, 254 between the drugs. Table 6 shows the results of these 7 studies; it is clear that the studies represent heterogenous populations and treatment strategies. Pooling the 4 similar studies resulted in a statistically significantly shorter length of stay by 5. Time to onset of efficacy The time to onset of efficacy was not found statistically significantly different in a small trial 62 including aripiprazole, haloperidol, olanzapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone. In a larger trial (N=256) of ziprasidone and aripiprazole, time to onset of efficacy was evaluated by comparing 125 response at specific time points. At 4 weeks ziprasidone was found to have superior improvement in the BPRS and the PANSS, but not on the CGI or at any other time point. Pooling data from the RODOS studies resulted in an onset of initial response 7. The imprecision around the estimate of the weighted mean difference for time-to-onset of olanzapine compared with risperidone was reflected in the wide 95% confidence intervals. A sensitivity analysis examining the influence of individual studies revealed the Snaterse study to contribute to the between-study heterogeneity. Excluding this study gave a pooled weighted mean difference of 4. The mean onset of efficacy in patients admitted to a state psychiatric hospital was approximately 6 days shorter with risperidone than olanzapine, however the data for olanzapine were less 140 complete and the standard deviations were not reported. Discontinuation of treatment No significant difference was found in rates of discontinuation of drug for any reason or switching medications overall, based on 1 trial and 3 observational studies. The risk of discontinuing assigned drug due to lack of efficacy was higher in the olanzapine groups (number needed to treat, 44), while the risk of discontinuing due to adverse events was higher in the risperidone groups (number needed to treat, 59). A trial involving aripiprazole, olanzapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone atypical antipsychotics found ziprasidone to have the highest withdrawal rate due to adverse events, but the difference across the groups was not statistically 62 significant. One of these studies, conducted in Canada, followed patients for 12 months and reported a significant difference in the re-admission rate over this time period (31. Atypical antipsychotic drugs Page 55 of 230 Final Report Update 3 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Discharge rates A small (N=20), 10-week, open-label trial compared clozapine with risperidone in treatment- resistant patients during hospitalization for an acute episode and reported discharge rates (60% 84 with clozapine, 78% with risperidone; P=0. There were significantly more women than men in the risperidone group, but other baseline characteristics were similar. The mean dose of clozapine was 385 mg daily (midrange) compared with 7. A study of olanzapine and risperidone found that the proportion of patients discharged on their assigned drug was not statistically significantly different between the drugs 136 when prior failures on one or the other was taken into account. In a study of ziprasidone and aripiprazole, discharge-readiness was assessed by the 125 Outcome Resource Discharge Questionnaire, rather than actual discharge rates. Nursing burden in inpatient setting A single fair-quality study comparing olanzapine plus lorazepam with haloperidol plus 256 lorazepam evaluated the effects in acutely agitated patients with schizophrenia. The outcome measure was based on the use of restraints, seclusion, or special nursing watch procedures. The proportions of patients needing these were similar in both groups (16. This was a small study (N=100) in a narrowly defined population, so generalizability to other populations was low. Since no other trial used these outcome measures, indirect comparisons were not possible. Atypical antipsychotic drugs Page 56 of 230 Final Report Update 3 Drug Effectiveness Review Project Table 6. Olanzapine compared with risperidone in the inpatient setting Study Olanzapine Risperidone Olanzapine compared with risperidone Length of inpatient stay N Mean days N Mean days Kraus 45 8 40 8 Mladsi 153 11 120 12 Weighted mean difference Advocat 46 332 36 376 a 5. Efficacy Intermediate outcome measures, such as improvement on symptom scales, typically are useful in determining efficacy of a drug. But they are not the ultimate goal of treatment; long-term effectiveness outcomes are. In the chain of evidence, there is a presumed link between the intermediate efficacy measure and a long-term effectiveness outcome, but these links are not always proven. An example of an intermediate outcome measure and an effectiveness outcome is improvement in negative symptoms leading to improvements in social functioning. Previous versions of this report have conducted detailed analyses of intermediate outcome measures; however, with the body of evidence now available for the atypical antipsychotics, we have a large group of studies contributing direct evidence on comparative effectiveness outcomes for most of these drugs. When the direct link between treatment and long-term effectiveness outcomes exists, reviewing the evidence on intermediate outcomes does not confer additional information about medication benefits. In many cases, a large body of evidence would be reviewed to result in the same conclusions as the higher-level evidence. In cases where the intermediate evidence conflicts with the long-term effectiveness Atypical antipsychotic drugs Page 57 of 230 Final Report Update 3 Drug Effectiveness Review Project evidence, the fact that a definite link between the outcomes has not been established may be the cause. One such outcome that has not been addressed above is response or remission rates. Intermediate outcomes that are no longer necessary to be reviewed except in special circumstances are the schizophrenia symptomatology scales (PANSS, BPRS, SANS, and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement [CGI-I]), neuropsychiatric cognitive tests, and symptom scales for aggression and depression as a part of the symptoms of schizophrenia. Below we present the data on response and remission for all atypical antipsychotics and intermediate outcomes for only those drugs without long-term effectiveness evidence. Currently the drugs without effectiveness evidence are asenapine, iloperidone, extended-release paliperidone and paliperidone long-acting injection, the injectable formulations of olanzapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone, the orally disintegrating tablet formulations of clozapine, olanzapine, and risperidone, and the extended release tablet formulation of immediate-release quetiapine. Response rates Response rates across the atypical antipsychotics ranged widely across trials due to variations in patient populations, duration of follow-up, and definition of response. Many trials reported response based on ≥ 20% improvement on the PANSS, but it was clear that this definition did 257, 258 not work well for all populations. Other definitions included the Kane criteria 259 (improvement of ≥ 20% on BPRS and either CGI-S ≤ 3 or BPRS ≤ 35), 30%, 40%, and 50% improvements in PANSS or BPRS, and, more recently, ≤ 3 on all PANSS items and ≤ 3 on the CGI-S. Across the trials, statistically significant differences in response rates were very rare, with these differences occurring only when data were analyzed according to multiple definitions of response (see comparison of clozapine and olanzapine below).
Those genes involved in B-cell development and differentiation are color coded in blue and those involved in cell cycle regulation are color coded in red buy erectafil with a visa erectile dysfunction causes relationship problems. Mutations affecting the RAS signaling pathway are purple and those affecting the JAKs are green discount erectafil 20 mg with visa erectile dysfunction treatment surgery. The transcriptional regulators and others are color coded in black purchase erectafil amex erectile dysfunction medications. Kaplan-Meier curves showing survival for different with CRLF2 rearrangements is protocol dependent,4,9,13 likely reﬂect- cytogenetic abnormalities. Approximately according to cytogenetic risk groups (adapted from Moorman et al3). Both CRLF2 overexpression and JAK mutations result in haploidy, low hypodiploidy, t(17;19)(q23;p13), abnormal 17p, and loss constitutive activation of the JAK-STAT pathway. Percentages Other recurrent copy number abnormalities include focal gene are overall survival at 7 years. High-risk abnormalities include: deletions within transcription factors important in B-cell develop- ment and differentiation and cell cycle regulators. Philadelphia frequently involved in BCP-ALL include: PAX5, IKZF1, EBF1, positive/t(9;22)(q34;q11) patients were sufﬁciently prevalent to be RB1, CDKN2A/B, ETV6, and BTG1. IKZF1 encodes the transcription factor improved outcome of high hyperdiploidy is indicated separately. It is of clinical interest because IKZF1 deletions are the only copy number changes that have universally been associated 120 American Society of Hematology with an inferior outcome. They may either remove the entire gene, mutually exclusive of the common established cytogenetic sub- often resulting from large deletions of the short arm of chromosome groups and have a high incidence of IKZF1 deletions, deregulated 7, leading to haploinsufﬁciency and reduced Ikaros protein levels, CRLF2, and JAK mutations. The most common intragenic deletion range of next-generation sequencing and molecular techniques, includes exons 4 to 7, leading to in-frame splicing of exon 3 to exon patients with this expression signature have been shown to be 8 and the production of the Ik6 isoform with dominant-negative characterized by genetic alterations, including rearrangements, activity. Other types of intragenic deletions also occur, the func- mutations, and deletions of a range of kinase and cytokine receptors. These include ABL1 translocations (eg, the NUP214-ABL1 fusion, previously shown to be ampliﬁed in T-ALL); translocations involving Other deletions affect genes involved in B-lymphoid differentiation EPOR, JAK2, PDGFRB, and EBF1; and mutations of FLT3, IL7R, and and signaling (RAG1, RAG2, CD200, and VPREB) and transcrip- SH2B3 (a negative regulator of JAK2 signaling). In total, 50% had CRLF2 high expression, of which 30% had JAK2 mutations. The remainder had ABL1, JAK2, PDG- Recurrent sequence mutations have also been identiﬁed within genes FRB, and other kinase rearrangements and sequence mutations. Largely, involved in different signaling pathways, including RAS signaling, 17 these genes facilitate leukemic transformation by inducing constitutive B-cell development and differentiation, and cell cycle control (Figure 18 19,20 kinase activation and signaling through the activation of the ABL1 3B). Sequence mutations or deletions in the TP53, CREBBP, and 22,23 and/or JAK-STAT pathways. Strikingly, CREBBP mutations are present in 20% of relapsed BCP-ALL and speciﬁcally in 60% of high-hyperdiploid patients at relapse. These observations suggested Childhood patients with high-risk chromosomal abnormalities, clonal evolution and expansion of the minor subclones under the whether they are NCI high ( 10 years old or WBC count selective pressure of cytotoxic treatment that conferred resistance to 9 50 10 /L) or NCI standard risk ( 10 years old and WBC therapy. All high-risk adult patients Associations between abnormalities with a suitable donor are typically recommended for allogeneic BM We are beginning to understand the associations between these transplantation in ﬁrst remission. For example, we have shown the differing nature and distribution of copy number changes according to BCR-ABL1 and other ABL1 translocations cytogenetic subtype in a large cohort of childhood ALL. BCR-ABL1–positive leukemia represents the paradigm of other good-risk group: high hyperdiploidy. Among the poor-risk how understanding the molecular pathogenesis led to major treat- subgroups, MLL-rearranged patients showed a small number of ment improvements. The formation of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase changes compared with the BCR-ABL1 subgroup, with frequent is the critical pathogenetic event in chronic myeloid leukemia, which deletions of CDKN2A/B, PAX5, and IKZF1, speciﬁcally exons 4 proved to be an ideal target for therapy in clinical trials of TKI. These ﬁndings indicate the more aggressive nature of the shown that imatinib signiﬁcantly improved the long-term survival of MLL translocation in ALL, requiring fewer additional genetic patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. The advent of next-generation alterations for induction of leukemogenesis than the BCR-ABL1 TKIs (eg, dasatinib and nilotinib) has revolutionized the treatment of all and ETV6-RUNX1 subtypes. The iAMP21 patients demonstrated 31 BCR-ABL1–positive diseases. Reports from pediatric and adult ALL a characteristic proﬁle, including a high proportion of P2RY8- trials using TKIs show promising results, with outcomes substantially CRLF2 and deletions of RB1. Because resistance is a clinically signiﬁcant issue mutations are common among patients with high hyperdiploid, for these patients, many groups are working on third- and fourth- MLL-rearranged, and near-haploid karyotypes23-26; low hypodip- generation TKIs to overcome or minimize the development of resis- loidy is characterized by alterations of TP53,26 whereas JAK2 tance; alternative clinical trial designs such as the sequential use of mutations are strongly associated with CRLF2 rearrangements and different TKIs, may reduce this problem. It is has focused on applying high-throughput genomics and sequencing known as BCR-ABL1–like or Ph-like ALL, so called because it to identify genes and pathways that are consistently altered in shows a similar gene expression signature to BCR-ABL1–positive high-risk ALL, which may act as novel targets for therapy; for ALL and shares the same high risk of relapse and poor outcome. A characteristic genomic landscape is emerging to facilitate the Evidence has emerged from such studies that patients with activated identiﬁcation BCR-ABL1–like ALL in the many study groups for kinase signatures among the BCR-ABL1–like patient group may which gene expression proﬁling is not available. They are generally also beneﬁt from treatment with TKIs. For example, 3 cases of the Hematology 2013 121 NUP214-ABL1 fusion with active ABL1 signaling as seen in T-ALL have now been reported in BCP-ALL. However, primary cells from the third case showed no change in viability or levels of apoptosis upon treatment with a range of TKIs. Differences in response in both B- and T-ALL may result from variable NUP214-ABL1 copy number or the nature of cooperating mutations. We have reported a cohort of patients with ZMIZ1- ABL1 fusion with a good response to conventional therapy. Simpliﬁed representation of signaling pathways would have further improved outcome. PDGFRB rearrangements Potential therapeutic inhibitors and their targets are indicated. Patients with myeloproliferative disorders and PDGFRB rearrange- ments show complete hematological and molecular response to inhibitors such as lestaurtinib (CEP-701) and PKC412 selectively kill imatinib. Therefore, based on the evidence that TKI treatment is MLL-rearranged cells, they have shown potential value in the treatment effective for all BCR-ABL1–positive diseases, it is likely that of these infants and have recently been incorporated into clinical trials patients with rearrangements involving PDGFRB, found among the on the backbone of intensive therapy by the Children’s Oncology BCR-ABL1–like cohort, will respond to TKI therapy. JAK2 translocations, an activating mutation of the cytokine mutations, including MLL-rearranged and hyperdiploidy. The use of receptor IL7 (IL7R), deletion of SH2B3, and CRLF2 rearrangements MAPK-ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitors has been indicated as have been reported within the BCR-ABL1–like cohort. JAK2 translocations by the JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib,30 a drug currently undergoing clinical trials. In addition to JAK-STAT, there Candidate genes identiﬁed by deletions is evidence of aberrant mTOR/PI3K signaling in ALL with rear- Deletion of genetic material is usually regarded as an impossible target ranged CRLF2; therefore, combinations of the JAK and PI3K for therapy due to loss rather than gain of function. Understanding the inhibitors ruxolitinib and rapamycin have potential in CRLF2- downstream pathways and the respective genes that are deregulated by rearranged and JAK-mutated disease36 (Figure 4). For example, recent insights into IKZF1 biology indicate MLL rearrangements that IKZF1 deletions may represent good candidates because they The histone methyltransferase DOT1L is required for the develop- occur in 14% of BCP-ALL cases and are linked to poor outcome. Although it is evident that much progress is being made in the development of novel targeted therapies for the treatment of There is extensive evidence demonstrating the overexpression of high-risk and resistant ALL, as summarized in Table 1, the solutions wild-type FLT3 in MLL-rearranged infant ALL. One major consideration resides in 122 American Society of Hematology the level of clonal heterogeneity and complex diversity of genetic changes, which have been identiﬁed within the leukemic cells of patients with ALL. They also need to be targeted, which, based on evidence from studies of diagnostic and relapse samples from the same patients, may not always represent the major clone at diagnosis with abnormalities present at a low level at diagnosis conferring resis- tance emerging at relapse. Therefore, there is an increasing need for highly sensitive detection of these relapse driving mutations at the time of diagnosis, as well as a complete understanding of the interplay between cooccurring genetic abnormalities.
The role of day 1 buy erectafil cheap erectile dysfunction blogs, and prednisone 50 mg/m2 orally on days 1-5) at 3-week intrathecal prophylaxis in the rituximab era is unclear 20mg erectafil with visa erectile dysfunction kamagra. In case of disease progression under rituximab treatment purchase generic erectafil pills erectile dysfunction treatment without drugs, patients proceeded to chemotherapy immedi- Primary CNS PTLD. Involvement of the CNS occurs in ately (therefore starting before day 50). Supportive treatment approximately 10% of PTLD cases, most commonly as primary included mandatory G-CSF support and antibiotic prophylaxis CNS PTLD. Key exclu- PTLD from Australia, Europe, and the United States identiﬁed an sion criteria were CNS involvement, HIV infection, severe organ association with renal transplantation (66/84). Most cases occurred dysfunction not related to PTLD, and Eastern Cooperative Oncol- as late PTLD (70/84 later than 1 year; 25/84 later than 10 years), had ogy Group (ECOG) performance status 2. Of 70 patients CD20-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma histology (66/84), assigned to sequential treatment, 76% had late, 96% monomorphic, and were EBV positive (74/79). Main adverse events were grade associated PTLD differs markedly from systemic PTLD. Treatment 3/4 leukopenia in 68% and grade 3/4 infections in 41% of patients. Although patients who and included Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia before obligatory achieved a response to therapy had a signiﬁcantly improved prophylaxis had been introduced, biliary hemorrhage, and 3 cases of prognosis, the optimal treatment regime is still unclear. Two rituximab responders died from pulmonary interesting that in the above-mentioned analysis, patients who hemorrhage and hepatitis C reactivation. The overall response rate received immunosuppression reduction as sole initial treatment did was 90%, with 67% complete responses; 74% of responders were particularly poorly. Furthermore, receiving rituximab and/or high- progression free at 3 and 5 years. To ﬁeld to date, has demonstrated the efﬁcacy and safety of sequential put the result in context, it should be noted that the power of the therapy (rituximab followed by CHOP chemotherapy). Overall survival in patients treated complete responses, respectively) and a longer median overall with immunotherapy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy was approxi- survival compared with the European rituximab monotherapy trials mately 30% after 3 years. In patients EBV-negative PTLD despite on average poorer performance status with adequate renal (transplantation) function, we presently use and more common chemotherapy dose reductions in patients with immunosuppression reduction with concurrent rituximab and high- EBV-positive PTLD. TRM in rituximab responders was lower dose IV methotrexate (up to 4 g/m2) until a CR is reached. Further- immunosuppression) can result in allograft loss. To reduce the incidence of infections, we dard evidence-based treatment for CD20-positive PTLD unrespon- furthermore advocate reducing high-dose steroids started to treat sive to immunosuppression reduction outside of clinical trials. Burkitt PTLD is a rare form of CD20-positive P jirovecii prophylaxis. Like Burkitt lymphoma, it is characterized by extranodal manifestations, rapid growth, a very high proliferative CD20-negative PTLD index, and the presence of an MYC translocation in most but not all Plasmacytoma-like PTLD. In contrast to plasma cell neoplasms in the immunocompetent therapy protocols. The latter approach is associated with signiﬁcant host, BM involvement and lytic bone lesions are rare, whereas mortality in adults (3/5, 60%). In cases of disseminated disease, we have had positive patients reached a CR. There was no TRM and only 1 of these 5 experiences with immunosuppression reduction followed by combi- patients suffered a relapse that could be successfully treated with nation chemotherapy containing bortezomib and doxorubicin (PAD), rituximab plus carboplatin/etoposide (R-CE; see relapsed/refractory in analogy to multiple myeloma therapy in the immunocompetent disease below). Hodgkin and Hodgkin-like experience, these patients often have a poor performance status and PTLD form a separate group in the World Health Organization are at even higher risk of infection under chemotherapy than those classiﬁcation of PTLD. Published retrospective data are also scarce and limited to case reports and small retrospective series. Our study group has reported a response to rituximab in 4/7 The picture is further complicated by the histological subtypes of relapsed adults pretreated with chemotherapy with or without Hodgkin lymphoma and the different management of limited versus rituximab. Consistent with patients either refractory (7 patients) or relapsed (2 patients) after published guidelines11 and mirroring treatment of Hodgkin disease ﬁrst-line chemotherapy were treated with CE (carboplatin AUC4 in the immunocompetent host, we use immunosuppression reduc- d1, etoposide 120 mg/m2 on days 1-3 for 21 days). Five of 9 tion followed by radiotherapy in stage I disease and systemic achieved a CR, whereas 2/9 died due to treatment complications. It should be noted pretreated with sequential chemoimmunotherapy. In our current that ABVD in PTLD is associated with signiﬁcant (infectious) clinical practice, we use R-CE in refractory PTLD or early relapses mortality both in our own experience and in the published case (within the ﬁrst year) if the patient is ﬁt for chemotherapy. In case of later relapses (after the ﬁrst year), we favor retreating in Plasmablastic PTLD. Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) was ﬁrst analogy to the ﬁrst-line situation. Finally, and despite case reports of described as a usually EBV-associated B-cell neoplasm with treatment successes, in our experience, the toxicity of autologous or immunoblastic morphology, the immunophenotype of plasma cells allogeneic stem cell transplantation outweighs its beneﬁt. It is clinically characterized by extranodal, Common complications of PTLD (treatment) particularly mucosal, manifestations; a highly aggressive course; Because treatment complications, particularly infections, are a and poor prognosis. In the largest case series to date (8 cases) of signiﬁcant source of morbidity and mortality in PTLD treatment, PBL PTLD, we observed an association with heart or heart/lung prophylaxis has a key role. Immunosuppres- receive prophylaxis consisting of lamivudine and IV immunoglobu- sion reduction and local therapy were not sufﬁcient to treat PBL lins. In the PTLD-1 trial, prophylaxis immunosuppression reduction and systemic chemotherapy (CHOP- of P jirovecii pneumonia was recommended after 3 cases had 21) could achieve lasting CRs in 3/8 patients (2/3 with localized occurred within the ﬁrst year of recruitment (960 mg cotrimoxazole disease, 1/5 with disseminated disease). However, successful treat- orally 3 times a week),17 and we now administer cotrimoxazole to ment was only possible in lymphomas that were both EBV all PTLD patients undergoing chemotherapy. We also use ciproﬂoxa- associated and negative for the MYC/IGH translocation. In the PTLD-1 trial alone, 3 cases of TRM were pression reduction and early CHOP-21 chemotherapy with growth due to bacterial sepsis. An additional problem is posed by the factor support and P jirovecii prophylaxis. The ﬁnal subgroup of rare PTLD cases to be Sadly, the outcome of fulminant peritonitis in a PTLD patient in discussed here is T-cell PTLD. PTLD of T-cell origin is associated pancytopenia after chemotherapy is disastrous. The largest case series published so far have no evidence to support this measure, we consider resection of consists of 9 patients,40 and “meta-analyses” of published cases are residual intestinal PTLD manifestations before starting chemo- available. After successful therapy with chemoimmunotherapy, B- characterized as a histologically heterogeneous group and clinically cell depletion and hypogammaglobulinemia often persist for at least as occurring late (median time to PTLD, 60 months), with 1 year. In patients with hypogammaglobulinemia and recurrent extranodal manifestations in most patients and EBV association in infections after successful PTLD treatment and in those undergoing approximately one-third, little is known about the best treatment second-line therapy, we administer IV immunoglobulin infusions as approach. Swerdlow identiﬁed T-large granular cell leukemia as a infection prophylaxis. Patients with initially poor performance prognostically favorable subgroup,41 which we can conﬁrm from status (ECOG 2) are usually excluded from clinical trials. In the series by Herreman et al, the only patient who were inadvertently included into the PTLD-1 trial despite an surviving beyond 2 years was a 13-year-old kidney transplantation ECOG of 3 had a very high rate of treatment complications.