Loading

By N. Nafalem. Pennsylvania State University, Great Valley.

Sentences Country Dollars) Up to 15 years Nigeria v Up to $5 generic 20mg cialis super active mastercard erectile dysfunction prescription medications,000 Brazil w order 20 mg cialis super active mastercard erectile dysfunction treatment germany, x Up to $98 purchase 20 mg cialis super active otc erectile dysfunction treatment philadelphia,000 Kenya y Up to 5x the value of the medicine Up to 20 years Grenada, z Mexico aa $100,000 or more Up to life China bb, cc Up to 5x the value of the medicine imprisonment or death India dd Up to $20,000 or 3x the value of the medicine Philippines,ee United States f $100,000 or more Thailand gg Up to $1,700 m Bate, R. China broadens scope of counterfeit drugs criminal prosecution, but defnition still murky. Dollars) No imprisonment Grenada,a India,b Damages are recovered for infraction Malaysia,c Pakistan, d Philippines, e South Africa,f Uganda, g United States h Taiwan i Infringer must may patentee profts earned Jordan, j Nigeria k Patentee may fle a civil or criminal lawsuit China, Perul m $100,000 or more Mexico n $80,000 or more Up to 1 year Brazil o Monetary penalty not disclosed Canada p Up to $500 Singapore q Up to $10,000 Switzerland r $100,000 or more * Additional penalties and fnes may be associated with specifc infractions. Dollars) Up to 2 years Thailand s Up to $13,150 Up to 3 years Germany t Monetary penalty not disclosed Lebanon u Up to $33,000 Up to 4 years Indonesia v Up to $50,000 Up to 5 years Cambodia w Up to $5,000 France x Up to $650,000 Japan y Up to $100,000 with labor Kenya z Up to $6,000 Tanzania aa Up to $300 5 or more years Argentina bb, cc Monetary penalty not disclosed South Korea dd Up to $100,000 with labor q Singapore Patents Act as amended by Act No. Sentences Country Dollars) No imprisonment Cambodia, a Germany,b Damages are recovered for infraction India,c Pakistan,d Philippines, e Singapore, f South Africa, g Uganda,h United States, i Korea j Up to $47,000 China, k Taiwan l Infringer must pay the trademark owner profts earned from the infringement or the amount of losses that the trademark owner has sufered Jordan m Up to $8,500 Up to 3 days Mexico n Up to $70,000 Up to 1 year Switzerland o Up to $110,000 Brazil p Monetary penalty not disclosed Up to 2 years Argentina q Up to $30,000,000 Up to 3 years Lebanon r Up to $0. Paper presented at 10th Phar- macovigilance Training Course held at Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Uppsala, Sweden, May 25. Address by the director general of the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, Dora Nkem Akunyili. Counterfeit drug demand: Percep- tions of policy makers and community pharmacists in Sudan. Local pharmaceutical production in developing countries: How economic protectionism undermines access to quality medicines. Pilot study comparing technolo- gies to test for substandard drugs in feld settings. Crime oppotunities provided by legislation in market sectors: Mobile phones, waste disposal, banking, pharmaceuticals. Country specifc case studies—best practices to combat counterfeit medi- cines and to protect public health. Health professionals in the risk communication process on counterfeit medi- cines. Workshop on Tracing Pharmaceuticals in South Asia, University of Endinburgh, Centre for International Public Health Policy. Exploratory study on active pharmaceutical ingredient manufacturing for essential medicines. Compounding pharmacies have long evaded the tight oversight governing established drug makers. Medicines prices, availability, and affordability in 36 developing and middle-income countries: A secondary analysis. Sub- standard medicines in resource-poor settings: A problem that can no longer be ignored. Exophiala infection from contami- nated injectable steroids prepared by a compounding pharmacy. Qual- ity medicines for the poor: Experience of the Delhi programme on rational use of drugs. Knowledge, attitude and practice of adverse drug reaction reporting among healthcare workers in a tertiary centre in northern Nige- ria. Paper pre- sented at Workshop in International Public Affairs, La Follette School of Public Affaris, University of Wisconsin–Madison, May 21. A survey exploring knowl- edge and perceptions of general practitioners towards the use of generic medicines in the northern state of Malaysia. The global threat of counterfeit drugs: Why industry and governments must communicate the dan- gers. Press release: Belgian citizen sentenced for selling counterfeit, misbranded drugs. Fake antimalarials in Southeast Asia are a major impediment to malaria control: Multinational cross-sectional survey on the prevalence of fake antimalarials. Guidelines for the award of procurement contracts within the framework of humanitarian aid actions fnanced by the European Union. Counterfeit medicines: Filled with empty promises (print public service announcement). Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, inspection form for New England Compounding Pharmacy, Inc. What can consumer adverse drug reaction reporting add to existing health professional-based systems? Ensuring drug quality in global health programs: Briefng for congressional requesters. Pharmaceuticals— East Africa: Establishment of a bioequivalence centre for East Africa in Addis Ababa. Guide to the Global Fund policies on procurement and supply manage- ment of health products. Guide to the Global Fund policies on procurement and supply management of health products. Generic substitutions: A 2005 survey of the acceptance and per- ceptions of physicians in Jamaica. Report of the Expert Committee on a Comprehensive Examina- tion of Drug Regulatory Issues, Including the Problem of Spurious Drugs. Cross-sectional study of availability and pharmaceutical quality of antibiotics requested with or without prescription (over the counter) in Surabaya, Indonesia. Emerging challenges and opportunities in drug registration and regulation in developing countries. London: Health Systems Resource Centre, Depart- ment for International Development. The drugs stop here: A public health framework to address the drug shortage crisis. The business of health in Africa: Partnering with the private sector to improve people’s lives. Yvonne Chaka Chaka performs “Proud to Be” at Interpol General As- sembly in Vietnam. Ensuring safe foods and medical products through stronger regulatory systems abroad. Local production of pharmaceuticals: Industrial policy and access to medicines—an overview of key concepts, issues and opportunities for future research. Policies to promote use of generic medicines in low and middle income countries: A review of published literature, 2000- 2010. Vaccine supply chains need to be better funded and strengthened, or lives will be at risk. Testimony on protecting the nation’s health and safety before the House Committee on Commerce, Subcommittee on Health and Environment. Infuenza vaccination in German health care workers: Effects and fndings after two rounds of a nationwide awareness campaign. Combating counterfeit medicines and illicit trade in tobacco products: Minefelds in global health governance. New drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis: Needs, chal- lenges, promise, and prospects for the future.

generic 20mg cialis super active visa

While there has not been any natonal standard of pictorial label adopted so far order generic cialis super active line erectile dysfunction pumpkin seeds, based on a project by Delhi Pharmaceutcal Trust purchase 20 mg cialis super active free shipping erectile dysfunction without pills, in collaboraton with Apothecaries Foundaton the following pictorial labels that were developed and used and found appropriate purchase cialis super active 20mg visa causes of erectile dysfunction in your 20s,are recommended for use. Such labels can be pre-printed using self-adhesive stcker label and made available in Pharmacies. Pharmacists should paste relevant pictorial label either on the botle/pack of the drugs dispensed or on the prescripton sheet against each drugs prescribed. Based on the most commonly needed instructons, 11 types of messages were identfed and pictorial labels have been developed. More instructons if required can be added to this list and additonal labels need to be developed. Dosing consideratons for the pediatric patent Determinaton of a safe and efectve drug dose for the pedi- atric patent is essental for the treatng physician. Doses and dosing intervals in children difer from that of an adult because of age-related variatons in drug absorpton, distri- buton, metabolism, and eliminaton. Drugs like phenytoin and chloramphenicol are absorbed slowly and erratcally whereas penicillin and ampicillin are absorbed more ef- ciently than in the adults because of a higher gastric pH in the neonates. Most drug metabolizing enzymes are expressed at low levels at birth followed by postnatal inducton of specifc isoenzymes. For most drugs including phenytoin, barbiturates, digoxin and analgesics the plasma half lives are 2-3 tmes longer in neonates as compared to adults. As a result, neonatal dosing regimens for a number of drugs must be reduced to avoid toxicity. Similarly, specifc drug toxicites may be unique to this age group as evident in case of tetracyclines afectng teeth and glucocortcoids reducing linear growth of bones. Because of these maturatonal diferences in infants and chil- dren, simple proportonate reducton in the adult dose may not be adequate to determine an optmal pediatric dose. The most reliable dose informaton is usually the one provided by the drug manufacturer in the package insert or pediatric doses listed in the formulary. However, such informaton is not avail- able for the majority of drugs since proper dose optmizaton studies are ofen not performed in the pediatric age range. Consequently, inital doses are derived by scaling down the dosages used in adults and then ttratng according to clinical response. In the absence of specifc pediatric dose recommendatons, an estmate can be made by any of several methods based on age, weight, or surface area. Clark ( known as the Clark’s rule) introduced weight proportonal regimen for drug therapy. The above mentoned rules are helpful in situatons requiring the use of a drug that is unlicensed in children and for which no pediatric prescribing informaton is available. However, these rules are not precise and doses should not be calculated if it is possible to obtain the actual pediatric dose. Whatever be the method chosen to calculate the child’s dose, it should never exceed that of the adult. Dosing consideratons for the geriatric patent Aging is a natural process of human development and is char- acterized by a progressive loss of physiologic and reproductve functons. Altered response to drugs with aging occurs at both pharmacokinetc and pharmacodynamic levels. Pharmacokinetc changes occur with the age as a result of the inevitable anatomical and physiological changes which occur with tme, such as loss of an organ’s functonal units (neph- rons, neurons) and distrupton of some regulatory processes between cells and organs, resultng in decrease in functon of body systems. For example, frst pass metabolism decreases due to decrease in liver mass and blood fow, resultng in an increase in bioavailability of drugs which undergo extensive frst pass metabolism, for example, propranolol. Another example of a pharmacokinetc change is the reduced clear- ance of renally-cleared drugs due to reduced renal plasma fow and glomerular fltraton. This increases the potental for toxic efects partcularly with those drugs where even marginal accumulaton can have toxic efects, for example digoxin and lithium. Changes in body compositon such as increase in body fat proporton and decrease in total body water result in a decreased volume of distributon for water soluble drugs such as digoxin, which increases their serum concentratons and potental for adverse efects. Geriatric patents are much more “sensitve” to the acton of many drugs, implying a change in the pharmacodynamic inter- actons of the drugs with their receptors. Since homeostatc responses are ofen important components of the total response to a drug, these physiolog- ical alteratons may change the patern or intensity of drug response. The age-related changes in the functons and compositon of the human body require adjustments of drug selecton and dosage for old individuals. Drug excreton via the kidneys declines with age, the elderly should therefore be treated as renally insufcient patents. The metabolic clearance is primarily reduced with drugs that display high hepatc extracton (‘blood fow-limited metabo- lism’), whereas the metabolism of drugs with low hepatc extracton (‘capacity-limited metabolism’) usually is not diminished. Reducton of metabolic drug eliminaton is more pronounced in malnourished or frail subjects. The water content of the aging body decreases, the fat content rises, hence the distributon volume of hydrophilic compounds is reduced in the elderly, whereas that of lipophilic drugs is increased. Aside of these pharmacokinetc changes, one of the characteristcs of old age is a progressive decline in counterregulatory (homeostatc) mechanisms. Therefore drug efects are mitgated less, the reactons are usually stronger than in younger subjects, the rate and intensity of adverse efects are higher. Examples of drug efects augmented in this manner are, postural hypotension with agents that lower blood pressure, dehydraton, hypovolemia, and electrolyte disturbances in response to diuretcs, bleeding complicatons with oral antcoagulants, hypoglycemia with antdiabetcs, and gastrointestnal irritaton with non-steroidal ant-infammatory drugs. Psychotropic drugs but also antconvulsants and centrally actng anthypertensives may impede intellectual functons and motor coordinaton. The antmuscarinic efects of some antdepressants and neuroleptc drugs may be responsible for agitaton, confusion, and delirium in elderly. If drug therapy is absolutely necessary, the dosage should be ttrated to a clearly defned clinical or biochemical therapeutc goal startng from a low inital dose. Storage The term used to describe the safe keeping of all fnished drugs and pharmaceutcals awaitng dispatch. The term is also applied for safe stores in hospitals and dispensaries under the specifed conditons, so as to maintain their quality and potency. Dosage Form Refers to the gross physical form in which a drug is adminis- tered to or used by a patent. Drug Product A dosage form containing one or more actve therapeutc ingredients along with other substance included during manu- facturing process. Finished Product A medicinal product which has completed all stages of manu- facture including packaging. Strength The concentraton of the drug substance (for example weight/ weight, weight/volume or unit dose/volume basis) and the potency i. Stability Degree of resistance to chemical and physical changes, the efcacy of the preparaton must remain constant or change only within the limit specifed by ofcial compendia. Expiraton Date The date placed on the immediate container label of a drug product that designates the date through which the product is expected to remain within specifcatons. Storage Procedure and Instructons Drugs must be stored under conditons which minimize dete- rioraton, contaminaton or damage.

discount cialis super active 20 mg with visa

The amounts of surfactants and cosurfactants required to form microemulsions are usually higher than those required for emulsions effective cialis super active 20mg erectile dysfunction juice. Microemulsions offer several advantages for pharmaceutical use cheap 20 mg cialis super active fast delivery impotence antonym, such as ease of preparation discount 20mg cialis super active fast delivery erectile dysfunction pills in store, long-term stability, high solubilization capacity for hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs, and improved drug delivery. They can also be used in oral and par- enteral delivery (54), but this review is limited to in vivo studies by the transdermal route (55). A microemulsion carrying methylnicotinate was prepared using lecithin, water, and isopropylmiristate (56) and was applied onto the skin of human vol- unteers; appreciable transport of the bioactive substance was obtained. An o/w microemulsion and an amphiphilic cream, both carrying curcumin, were applied onto the skin of human volunteers; curcumin was chosen as model drug to compare the stratum corneum penetration of the two formulations. A deeper part of the stratum corneum was found to be accessible to the microemul- sion than to the cream (57). Niflumic acid was incorporated in a sugar-based sur- factant and tested in humans (58). It was found that the microemulsion formulation saturated with the drug (1%) was as efficient as a commercially available 3% o/w emulsion. Good human skin tolerability of a lecithin-based o/w microemulsion com- pared with a conventional vehicle (o/w, w/o, and gel) was reported (59). However, the amount that emulsions permeated from the microemulsion was sevenfold that from the gel, although the concentration of azelaic acid in the microemulsion was less than half. The thickened microemulsion was then applied to lentigo maligna (61) and confirmed the efficacy of azelaic acid to treat this variety of melanoma; the microemulsion led to the regression of the lesions. Comparison between this treatment and treatment with a cream (20% azelaic acid and 3% sal- icylic acid) showed that the microemulsion led to regression earlier than did the cream. Ten cases were treated; the average time for the complete remission was halved compared with the times required with the cream. Microemulsions for Transdermal Application of Apomorphin Apomorphine, a potent, short-acting dopamine agonist at D1 and D2 dopamine receptors, potentially represents a very useful adjunctive medication for patients with Parkinson’s disease. However, its clinical use is significantly limited by its pharmacokinetic profile characterized by a short half-life (approximately 30 min- utes), rapid clearance from plasma, absence of storage or retention in brain regions, poor oral bioavailability (5%), and first-pass hepatic metabolism. Several, unsuc- cessful attempts have been made to overcome these limits by using other routes of administration, but at present, its use remains limited to few clinical conditions. Recently, apomorphine was incorporated into microemulsions to study whether they are a feasible vehicle for transdermal transport of this drug. In the preparatory in vitro study (62), two different microemulsions whose components were all biocompatible were studied; the concentration of apomorphine was 3. Since apomorphine is highly hydrophilic, apomorphine–octanoic acid ion pairs were synthesized to increase its lipophilicity. The flux of drug from the two thick- ened microemulsions through hairless mouse skin was respectively 100 g/(h cm2) and 88 g/(h cm2). The first formulation, having the higher flux, was chosen for in vivo administration in patients with Parkinson’s disease. For the in vivo study, 21 patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease who pre- sented long-term l-dopa syndrome, motor fluctuation, and prolonged “off” peri- ods were selected (63). In these conditions, a single layer of microemulsion (1 mm thick) was directly in contact with the skin surface and acted as a reservoir of apomorphine. In all patients except two, apomorphine was detected in blood samples after a variable lag time. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that epicutaneous–transdermal apo- morphine absorption was rapid (mean half-life of absorption = 1. This result is in contrast with other reports, in which the transdermal route did not produce detectable plasma levels of apomorphine, or in which no apomorphine was trans- ported passively through the skin (64,65). Probably, this difference was mainly due to the peculiar pharmaceutical preparation used. Pharmacokinetic analysis confirmed the absorp- tion of apomorphine and the maintenance of therapeutic plasma levels for several hours (mean Cmax = 31. Results of in vivo experiments in laboratory animals and humans are very encouraging: efficient drug protection, cell internalization, controlled release, and passage through biological anatomical barriers have been achieved. Plasma protein adsorption patterns on emulsions for parenteral administration: establishment of a protocol for two-dimensional polyacrylamide elec- trophoresis. Analysis of plasma protein adsorption on polymeric nanoparticles with different surface characteristics. Atovaquone nanosuspensions show excellent ther- apeutic effect in a new murine model of reactivated toxoplasmosis. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and bioavailability of clozapine solid lipid nanoparticles after intravenous and intraduodenal administra- tion. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and bioavailability of nitrendipine solid nanoparticles after intravenous and intraduodenal administration. Transferrin conjugate solid lipid nanoparticles for enhanced delivery of quinine dihydrochloride to the brain. Nanoparticle surface charges alter blood- brain barrier integrity and permeability. Body distribution of camptothecin solid lipid nanoparticles after oral administration. Etoposide -incorporated tripalmitin nanopar- ticles with different surface charge; formulation, characterization, radiolabeling, and biodistribution studies. Enhanced brain targeting by synthesis of 3 ,5 -dioctanoyl- 5-fluoro-2 -deoxyuridine and incorporation into solid lipid nanoparticles. Injectable actarit loaded solid lipid nanoparticles as passive targeting therapeutic agents for rheumatoid arthritis. Solid lipid nanoparticles formed by solvent in water emulsion technique: Development and influence on insulin stability. Lung-targeting delivery of dexamethasone acetate loaded solid lipid nanoparticles. Incorporation of cyclosporin A in solid lipid nanoparti- cles in solid lipid nanoparticles. Preparation and characterization of solid lipid nanospheres containing paclitaxel. Duodenal administration of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with different percentages of tobramycin. Cholesteryl butyrate solid lipid nanoparticles inhibit adhesion of human neutrophils to endothelial cells. Solid lipid nanoparticles carrying oligonu- cleotides inhibit vascular endothelial grow factor expression in rat glioma models. Melatonin delivery in solid lipid nanoparticles: Prevention of cyclosporin A induced cardiac damage.

order cialis super active 20mg free shipping

Back To Top